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CSAP 



Center for 
Substance Abuse 
Prevention 



Substance Abuse and Mental 
Health Services Administration 

SUBSTANCE ABUSE RESOURCE GUIDE 






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Violence Against Women 

I he study of family violence and violence against women is w\ W^ ATfa ^ 

relatively new, yet we already know that the link between such ^J^^ ^^^<J* 

violence and alcohol and substance abuse remains one of the m ^4"^ , » £ 

strongest findings in the literature. <9 ^JwL SUmL^ 

Before 1975, research was based primarily on small groups and 
special populations (e.g., people in shelters, schools, or local 
communities). No national-level studies were available. The first 
wave of nationwide research focused on developing measures of 
incidence and prevalence of violence against women. The next 
wave of research focused on examining risk factors for victimiza- 
tion and perpetration of domestic violence. The most recent 
research — much of it still in progress — focuses on mitigating « ■ , 

factors concerning violence against women. This research views 
family violence as the final result of a variety of individual and Booklets Brochures 
interpersonal dysfunctions and disorders. Fact ^ an(j ^ 10 

The newest wave of research promises to identify more closely Mnaazines 

the nature of the link between substance abuse, alcohol, and ■ M ews i e tt ers ia 

family violence. We know that the cycle of violence is complex. 

For example, alcoholism and battering share similar behavioral wji p osters 

profiles because both may be passed from generation to genera- j q^ ^ ^ -yj 

tion, both involve denial or minimization of the problem, both 

involve isolation of the family, and both are intertwined as causal studies and Articles 18 

and mitigating factors. 

Prevalence and Risk Factors 
This resource guide presents recent research findings and infor- for Victimization 18 

mation on the relationship of alcohol and substance abuse to 
violence against women, including battering, murder, stalking Batterina and 

behaviors, rape, and sexual assault. We hope this material will Substance Abuse 23 

be of use to women and those who care for them. 

Stalking and Femicide 31 

Nelba Chavez, Ph.D. 

Administrator Substance Abuse in Rape 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and Sexual Assault 34 

Ruth Sanchez-Way, PhD. The Vicious Cycle: Substance 

Acting Director, Center for Substance Abuse Prevent.on Abuse as Q Consequente of 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Intimate-Partner Violence 38 

Organizations 
4&snaa. ( and Internet Sites 42 

I /&/ U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 

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DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention 



The listing of materials or programs in this resource guide does not constitute or imply endorsement 
by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the Public Health Service, the Substance Abuse and 
Mental Health Services Administration, or the Department of Health and Human Services. The 
materials have been reviewed for accuracy, appropriateness, and conformance with public health 
principles. 

This Substance Abuse Resource Guide was compiled from a variety of publications and data bases 
and represents the most current information to date. It is not an all-inclusive listing of materials on 
this topic. This guide will be updated regularly, and your comments or suggestions are welcome. To 
suggest information or materials that might be included in future editions, please write to 
SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI), P.O. Box 2345, 
Rockville,MD 20847-2345. 



Produced by SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, Denise C. 
Jones, editor. 

For further information on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs, call 1-800-729-6686, 301-468-2600, or 
TDD 1-800-487-4889. Or visit us on our World Wide Web site at http://www.health.org. 




Please feel free to be a "copy cat," and make all the copies you want. You 



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have our permission! 



Us 



Dynamics and Risk Factors in Partner 
Violence 

Found in Partner Violence: A Comprehen- 
sive Review of 20 Years of Research, edited 
by Jasinski and L.M. Williams, the authors 
focus on prevalence rates of partner vio- 
lence, dynamics of abusive relationships 
including typologies of batterers, docu- 
mented risk markers, and the importance 
of assessing violence in different life stages. 
A comprehensive understanding of these 
risk factors and their different impact at 
various life stages is essential because they 
are the heart of successful prevention and 
intervention models. The chapter con- 
cludes with a discussion of implications for 
practice and policy. 



Authors: Kantor, G.K.; 
jasinski, j.L. 

Year: 1998 

Format: Book (paperback) 

Length: 314 pages 

Topic: Domestic violence 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: Bookstores 
Cost: $25.95 



Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 
1SS8 

This volume brings together data about all 
aspects of criminal justice in the United 
States presented in more than 600 tables 
from more than 100 sources. The Source- 
book can be accessed via the Internet at 
www.albany.edu/sourcebook/. 



Organization: Bureau of Justice 
Statistics, U.S. Department of 
Justice 

Year: 1 998 

Format: Book (paperback) 

Length: 640 pages 

Topic: Criminal justice 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: National Archive 
of Criminal Justice Data, 
ICPSR, Institute for Social 
Research, P.O. Box 1248, 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106; 800- 
732-3277,313-763-5011; 
Internet: puborder@ncjrs.org 

Cost: Free 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Domestic 
Violence Survivors and Batterers 

This chapter is found in Problems of Drug 
Dependence 7 996: Proceedings of the 58th 
Annual Scientific Meeting: The College on 
Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc., NIDA 
Research Monograph Series 174. A struc- 
tured interview was used to assess demo- 
graphic information and patterns of alcohol 
and drug abuse for 80 female residents at 
an urban domestic violence shelter and 
their families, their batterers, and their bat- 
terers' families. The residents were primar- 
ily young African-American and Latina 
women with children. Only a relative few 
of the residents reported having drug or 
alcohol problems; however, 66.3 percent 
had a family member with a drinking prob- 
lem and 63.8 percent had a family mem- 
ber with a drug problem. More than 43 
percent of batterers were said to have, or 
to have had, a problem with alcohol, and 
52.5 percent of batterers reported having a 
problem with both alcohol and drugs. Half 
of the batterers had family members with 
alcohol or drug problems. 



Authors: Martin, A; Chu, M.; 
Sage, R.; et al. 

Year: 1 997 

Format: Book 

Length: 462 pages 

Topic: Influence of alcohol 
and drug abuse on domestic 
violence 

Target Audience: General 
public and women 



Availability: SAMHSA's Na- 
tional Clearinghouse for Alco- 
hol and Drug Information, 
P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 
20847-2345; 800-729-6686 

Cost: Free 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Alcohol and Spouse Abuse: Ethnic 
Differences 

This chapter found in Recent Develop- 
ments in Alcoholism, Vol. 13: Alcohol and 
Violence: Epidemiology, Neurobiology, Psy- 
chology, Family Issues; edited by M.M. 
Galanter, et al., examines theoretical and 
empirical evidence on the interplay among 
ethnicity, structural and cultural factors, 
and alcohol-related assaults against wives. 
The authors consider whether there is a 
differential vulnerability to such assaults 
among varying ethnic groups. The ques- 
tions considered are: (1) Do Hispanic and 
African-American husbands who drink 
heavily have a higher probability of wife- 
beating than Anglo-American husbands 
who drink heavily? (2) Does taking into 
account the effects of other variables such 
as poverty, acculturation, and gender role 
attitudes alter the relationships between 
ethnicity, drinking, and wife-beating? (3) 
Are such linkages between drinking and 
wife-beating found primarily among poor 
ethnic minorities? 



Author: Kantor, G.K. 

Year: 1997 

Format: Book 

Length: 456 pages 

Topic: Alcohol and domestic vio- 
lence 

Target Audience: General public 
and women 



Availability: Bookstores 
Cost: $89.50 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



How Far Have We Come? A Critical Review 
of the Research oo Men Who Batter 

This chapter is found in Recent Develop- 
ments in Alcoholism, Vol. 13, edited by 
Marc Galanter. Although the effects of 
domestic violence and partner abuse have 
been known throughout history, the topic 
has recently begun to receive attention in 
the research literature. Indeed, it was not 
until 1986 that two interdisciplinary jour- 
nals were dedicated exclusively to the 
study of family violence. Popular lore has 
frequently cited a connection between 
substance use (particularly alcohol) and 
domestic violence. However, this interac- 
tion has now begun to be formally 
recognized and addressed in research and 
treatment paradigms. This chapter presents 
some of the research findings regarding 
the multidimensional relationship between 
family violence and alcohol or drug abuse. 
Theories and data about the causes of fam- 
ily violence and characteristics of the male 
batterer and of the substance-abusing men 
who batter are offered. The final section 
examines several current models of treat- 
ment and their outcomes. 



Authors: Lee, W.V.; Weinstein, 
S.P. 

Year: 1 997 

Format: Book 

Length: 456 pages 

Topic: Domestic violence and sub- 
stance abuse 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: Bookstores 
Cost: $89.50 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Out of Darkness: Contemporary 

Perspectives oo Family Violence 

This edited volume is a collection of re- 
search and review articles covering such 
areas as the prevalence of family violence, 
wife abuse, child abuse, and ethical and 
cultural issues surrounding treatment, pre- 
vention, and research into family violence. 
The article discusses the change in cultural 
norms approving marital violence, attitudes 
and wife abuse, woman battering and race, 
abusive dating relationships, social predic- 
tors of wife assault, wife abuse in intact 
couples, batterer program evaluation, vic- 
tim resources, and police intervention. 



Editors: Kantor, G.K.; Jasinski, J.L. 

Year: 1 997 

Format: Book (paperback) 

Length: 332 pages 

Topic: Family violence 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: Bookstores 
Cost: $34.95 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



When Women Are Under the Influence: 
Does Drinking or Drog Abuse hy Women 
Provoke Deatings hy Men? 

Featured in Recent Developments in Alco- 
holism, Vol. 13: Alcoholism and Violence, 
this chapter considers the relevance and 
adequacy of an existing theory for explain- 
ing intoxicant-victimization effects, as well 
as the empirical basis for the hypothesized 
relationships. It addresses the following 
questions: (1) What are the hypothesized 
dimensions and mechanisms of intoxica- 
tion-victimization effects? (2) Does the 
empirical literature show that women who 
drink heavily or use drugs are at greater 
risk for abuse by spouses? (3) Does the im- 
portance of female drinking to victimiza- 
tion vary by the event (type of victimiza- 
tion) or by the population sample studied? 
(4) Is this a "spurious" relationship — for 
example, a relationship that simply reflects 
substance use by the husband or reflects 
other confounding variables such as a his- 
tory of abuse in the family of origin? What 
are the theoretical mechanisms? How 
common is drinking by both parties? The 
chapter also discusses empirical studies of 
wife assault and intoxication by female vic- 
tims. 



Authors: Kaufman Kantor, C; 
Asdigian, N. 

Year: 1997 

Format: Book 

Length: 456 pages 

Topic: Alcoholism and domestic 
violence 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: Bookstores 
Cost: $89.50 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Alcohol, Misperception, and Sexual Assault: 
How and Why Are They linked? 

Included in Sex, Power, Conflict: Evolution- 
ary and Feminist Perspectives, edited by 
D.M. Buss, N.M. Malamuth; et al., the au- 
thors of this chapter conclude that alcohol 
facilitates males' aggression, that alcohol 
enhances misperception of sexual intent, 
that alcohol makes it harder for women to 
resist an attack, and that alcohol tends to 
make men feel less responsible and 
women feel more responsible for what 
happened. They provide a sexual explana- 
tion for how and why alcohol consumption 
and sexual assault are linked. 



Authors: Abbey, A.; Ross, L.T.; 
McDuffie, D.; and McAuslan, P. 

Year: 1 996 

Format: Book (paperback) 

Length: 352 pages 

Topic: Alcohol and sexual assault 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: Bookstores 
Cost: $35 



A Survey of Factors Contributing to Gay and 
lesbian Domestic Violence 

Found in Violence in Gay and Lesbian Do- 
mestic Partnerships, Journal of Gay and 
Lesbian Social Services Series #4, edited by 
CM. Renzetti, C.H. Miley, et al., this study 
reports on work with 288 gay male and 
lesbian perpetrators of domestic violence 
over a 6-year period. It explores intergen- 
erational histories of abuse and violence, as 
well as current involvement in abuse and 
violence in domestic relationships. It con- 
siders connections between addictive/self- 
abusive behaviors (including drug, alcohol, 
food, and sex addictions) — that is, secon- 
dary abuse behavior — and domestic vio- 
lence. 



Author: Farley, N. 

Year: 1 996 

Format: Book 

Length: 121 pages 

Topic: Domestic violence in 
gay and lesbian partnerships 

Target Audience: Gay and lesbian 
community and general public 



Availability: Bookstores 
Cost: $12.95 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



National Crime Victimization Survey, 1998: 
Changes 1997-98 with Trends 1993-98 

According to a press release of the 1998 
National Crime Victimization Survey 
(NCVS) findings, the nation's violent crime 
rate fell 7 percent in 1998. This is 27 per- 
cent lower than in 1993. Violent crimes 
(rape, sexual assault, robbery and assault) 
and (property crimes (burglary, theft and 
motor vehicle theft) were at their lowest 
since the Bureau of Justice Statistics began 
publishing the survey in 1973. The report 
notes almost half of all violent crimes and 
one-third of all property crimes were re- 
ported to the police between 1993 and 
1998. Women and blacks were more 
likely to report violent crimes than men 
and whites. 



Organization: Bureau of Justice 
Statistics 

Year: 1 999 

Format: Book 

Length: Not listed 

Topic: Criminal justice 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: National Archive 
of Criminal Justice Data, 
ICPSR, Institute for Social 
Research, P.O. Box 1248, 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106; 800- 
732-3277, 313-763-5011; 
Document No. NCJ-1 76353 

Cost: Free 



8 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Violence and Abuse: Implications for 
Women's Health 

With the exception of spouse abuse, there 
are no nationally representative studies of 
the prevalence of acts of violence against 
women and children. However, this chap- 
ter found in Women's Health: The 
Commonwealth Fund Survey, edited by 
Marilyn Falik and Karen Collins, provides 
an analysis of data from The 
Commonwealth Fund survey, the first 
nationally representative survey to ask 
questions about child abuse and rape, 
which is one of the few national surveys to 
ask questions about violent crime and 
spouse abuse. The chapter examines the 
prevalence of violent experiences among 
women ages 18 to 64. More important, it 
provides information necessary to explore 
the relationship of experiencing violence to 
health status and to the use of health 
services. Finally, it examines the quality of 
physician-patient communication among 
women who have experienced violence. 



Author: Plichta, S.B. 

Year: 1 996 

Format: Book (paperback) 

Length: 408 pages 

Topic: Abuse of women 

Target Audience: Women and 
general public 



Availability: Bookstores 
Cost: $18.95 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



Booklets, tmMm, 
M Steels, ant Re/oris 



More Than a Few Good Men: Strategies for 
Inspiring Boys and Yoong Men to Be Allies 
in Anti-Sexist Education 

Five key strategies are outlined to inspire 
boys and young men to be allies with girls 
and women in gender violence prevention 
education. Many of the ideas presented 
here were developed and refined during 
the course of hundreds of single-sex work- 
shops and classes conducted over the past 
decade with boys' and men's athletic 
teams, college fraternities, groups of 
enlisted men and officers in the United 
States Marine Corps and Army. Also, there 
were mixed-gender workshops and classes 
in middle schools, high schools, and col- 
leges. The six strategies discussed are: in- 
troducing violence against women as a 
men's issue; framing gender violence pre- 
vention as a leadership issue for boys and 
men; personalizing gender violence issues 
through "remedial empathy" exercises; 
focusing on the role of bystanders and dis- 
cussing concrete options for intervention; 
making the connection between homo- 
phobia and men's reluctance to challenge 
sexism; and preempting predictable criti- 
cisms and objections from boys and men. 



Author: Katz, J. 

Year: 1998 

Format: Booklet 

Length: 16 pages 

Topic: Prevention of violence 
against women 

Target Audience: Women, men, 
boys, girls, and general public 



Availability: The Wellesley 
Centers for Women, Welles- 
ley College, 1 06 Central 
Street, Wellesley, MA 02481- 
8203; 781-283-2500 

Cost: $10 



10 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Violence by Intimates: Analysis of Data oo 
Grimes by Current op Former Spouses, 
Boyfriends, and Girlfrieods 

This report is a compilation of statistical 
data maintained by the Bureau of Justice 
Statistics and the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation on violence between people who 
have an intimate relationship — spouses, 
ex-spouses, boyfriends, girlfriends, and 
former boyfriends and girlfriends. The vio- 
lent acts included murder, rape, assault, 
and robbery. Women were typically the 
victims in violence by intimates. The report 
examines the characteristics of intimate 
offenders and what types of injuries the 
victims sustained. The data also show that 
more than half of these offenders had been 
drinking or using drugs when they commit- 
ted the crime. 



Authors: Creenfeld, LA; Rand, 
M.R.; Craven, D.; et al. 

Year: 1998 

Format: Booklet 

Length: 46 pages 

Topic: Violence by nonmarried 
partners 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: Bureau of Justice 
Statistics Clearinghouse, Box 
179, Annapolis Junction, MD 
20701-0179; 800-732-3277 

Full report available online at 
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/ 
Cost: Free 



Aboot Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Family 
Violeoce 

Facts about alcohol, drugs, and family vio- 
lence are provided in this booklet. About 
Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Family Violence 
encourages readers to protect themselves 
and their loved ones by asking for help. 



Year: 1996 

Format: Booklet 

Length: 1 5 pages 

Topic: Alcohol, drugs and 
violence in families 

Target Audience: Prevention pro- 
fessionals, high-risk families, and 
young adults 



Availability: Channing L. Bete 
Co., Inc., 200 State Rd., South 
Deerfield, MA 01 373; 800- 
628-7733 (order #20248) 

Cost: $1.05 each for 1-99 
booklets 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



11 



Violence Against Women: Estimates from 
the Redesigned Survey 

After an extensive 10-year redesign pro- 
ject, the National Crime Victimization pro- 
ject revised the National Crime Victimiza- 
tion Survey (NCVS) to improve reporting of 
violence against women. This report pro- 
vides the first release of the 1992-1993 
estimates of violence resulting from the 
new questions, and includes side-by-side 
comparisons of the new and old screening 
questions. Using the redesigned survey, 
women (ages 1 2 and older) reported about 
500,000 rapes and sexual assaults, almost 
500,000 robberies, and about 3.8 million 
assaults to NCVS interviewers each year. 
Women were six times more likely than 
men to experience violence committed by 
an intimate, and female victims of violence 
by an intimate were more often injured by 
the violence than females victimized by a 
stranger. Women of all races and both 
Hispanic and non-Hispanic women were 
equally vulnerable to violence by an inti- 
mate. 



Authors: Bachman, R.; Saltzman, 
LE. 

Year: 1 995 

Format: Booklet 

Length: 8 pages 

Topic: Violence against women 

Target Audience: Women and 
general public 



Availability: NCJRS 154348, 
National Criminal Justice Re- 
source Service, P.O. Box 
6000, Rockville, MD 20849- 
6000; 800-851-3420 

Cost: Free 



12 






Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Alcohol ood Crime: Ao Analysis of National 
Data on the Prevalence of Alcohol Involve- 
ment in Crime 

This study is a comprehensive review of 
the relationship of alcohol to crime in a 
wide variety of areas, including family and 
partner violence. It includes original analy- 
ses and tables drawn from a wide variety of 
Federal and public data sets. The report 
points out that violence between current 
and former spouses, boyfriends, and girl- 
friends is especially likely to involve alcohol 
abuse. 



Author: Greenfield, L 

Year: 1994 

Format: Booklet 

Length: 47 pages 

Topic: Alcohol and violence 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: Department of 
Justice, Office of Justice Pro- 
grams, Bureau of Justice 
Statistics, Report NCJ 
#168632, National Criminal 
Justice Research Service, P.O. 
Box 6000, Rockville, MD 
20849-6000; 800-851-3420 

Cost: Free 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



Making the link: Domestic Violence and 
Alcohol and Other Drugs 

Research into domestic violence frequently 
documents high rates of alcohol and other 
drug involvement, and alcohol and drug 
abuse use is known to impair judgment, 
reduce inhibition, and increase aggression. 
Alcoholism and child abuse, including in- 
cest, seem closely related as well. Alcohol 
consistently emerges as a significant predic- 
tor of marital violence. Studies have shown 
a significant association between battering 
incidents and alcohol abuse. In a study of 
472 women, 87 percent of alcoholic 
women had been physically or sexually 
abused as children, compared to 59 per- 
cent of the non-alcoholic women sur- 
veyed. The percentage of batterers who 
are under the influence of alcohol when 
they assault their partners ranges from 48 
percent to 87 percent. In Marion County, 
Indiana, 60 percent of battered women 
who filed charges indicated that the abuser 
was under the influence of alcohol during 
the incident. Sixty-four percent of all re- 
ported child abuse and neglect cases in 
New York City in 1987 were associated 
with parental alcohol and drug abuse. 



Organization: Center for 
Substance Abuse Prevention 

Year: 1 994 

Format: Fact sheet 

Length: 1 page 

Topic: Domestic violence and 
substance abuse 

Target Audience: General public, 
high-risk youth, young adults, 
women, and community service 
groups 



Availability: SAMHSA's Na- 
tional Clearinghouse for Alco- 
hol and Drug Information, 
P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 
20847-2345; 800-729-6686 

Cost: Free 



14 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Report of the American Psychological 
Association Presidential Task Force on 
Violence and the Family 

This report brings psychological research 
and clinical experience to bear on the 
troubling problem of violence in the family 
and makes recommendations for solutions. 
Its purpose is to attempt to unify the fields 
of child abuse, partner abuse, dating vio- 
lence, elder abuse, and adult survivors of 
childhood abuse as a unified field of study 
with important crosscurrents and linkages. 
The task force defined family violence and 
abuse as including a range of physical, sex- 
ual, and emotional maltreatment by one 
family member against another. According 
to this definition, the term family includes 
a variety of relationships beyond those of 
blood or marriage, in recognition that simi- 
lar dynamics of abuse may occur in these 
relationships. The report covers a wide va- 
riety of issues surrounding prevention, how 
abusive behavior is learned, and legal and 
ethical issues. 



Organization: American 
Psychological Association 

Year: 1 990 

Format: Booklet 

Length: 142 pages 

Topic: Violence in families 

Target Audience: Families and gen- 
eral public 



Availability: American Psycho- 
logical Association, 750 First 
Street, NE., Washington, DC 
20002-4242; 202-336-5500 

Cost: $5 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



15 





Prevention Pipeline 



The CSAP/NCADI award-winning bi- 
monthly magazine features an array of arti- 
cles, statistics, abstracts, descriptions of 
new materials in the NCADI catalog, up- 
dates on new research in the substance 
abuse field, funding resources, public ser- 
vice ads, and reprinted materials. Sub- 
scribers are encouraged to "lift" articles 
and artwork for their own newsletters. 



Publisher: Center for Substance 
Abuse Prevention (CSAP) 

Year: Published bimonthly 

Format: Magazine 

Length: 60 pages 

Topic: Alcohol and substance 
abuse 

Target Audience: Substance 
abuse prevention professionals, 
educators, parents, teens, and 
adults 



Availability: SAMHSA's Na- 
tional Clearinghouse for Alco- 
hol and Drug Information, 
P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 
20847-2345; 800-729-6686 

Internet: www.health.org 

Cost: Annual subscriptions are 
$28 for domestic orders, $32 
for international orders 



16 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Urn, Pasters, 
and Utter Items 



Family Violence in America — Conspiracy 

of Silence 

In Conspiracy of Silence, all elements of a 
community (law enforcement, the legal 
system, social and volunteer agencies) 
come together to ensure that the silent vic- 
tories of such people as "Marilyn" become 
the norm rather than the exception. It also 
links substance abuse to domestic violence 
and explains the "cycles of violence," a 
predictable pattern of repetitious and de- 
structive behavior. 



Organization: FMS Productions, 
Inc. 

Year: No date 

Format: Videotape 

Length: 28 minutes 

Topic: Substance abuse and do- 
mestic violence 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: FMS Productions, 
Inc., 5320D Carpinteria Ave- 
nue, P.O. Box 5016, Carpin- 
teria, CA 93014; 800-421- 
4609 

Cost: $195 



lift It Up 

This film tackles the issue of alcohol and 
violence, and focuses specifically on as- 
sault, murder, child abuse, rape, emotional 
trauma, and other forms of physical vio- 
lence. A discussion guide is included. 



Organization: FACE — Truth and 
Clarity on Alcohol 

Year: No date 

Format: Videotape 

Length: 7 minutes 

Topic: Violence and alcohol 

Target Audience: General public 



Availability: FACE — Truth and 
Clarity on Alcohol, 105 West 
Fourth Street, Clare, Ml 
48617; 888-822-3223 

Cost: $185 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



17 




ant Micles 



Prevalence and Risk Factors fnr Victimization 



Alcohol Availability and Domestic Violeoce 

Gorman, D.M.; Labouvie, E.W.; Speer, P.W.; 

and Subaiya, A. P. 
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 

24(4): 661-673,1998 

The relationship among sociodemographic vari- 
ables, alcohol outlet density, and rate of domes- 
tic violence in New Jersey are examined in this 
study. Data were analyzed for the 223 



largest municipalities in the State. Three socio- 
demographic factors explained 58 percent of 
the variance among municipalities in the rate of 
domestic violence. One factor — termed social 
disadvantage — explained the greatest amount of 
unique variance (42 percent). The findings show 
that, in New Jersey, higher levels of alcohol out- 
let density are not geographically associated 
with higher rates of domestic violence. 



Domestic Violence Among Patients at Two Roral 
Health Care Clioics: Prevaleoce aod Social 
Correlates 

Van Hightower, N.R.; Gorton, J. 

Public Health Nursing, 15(5): 355-362, 1998 

Despite a growing body of knowledge about 
family abuse, there is little research focusing on 
domestic violence in rural settings. Likewise, 
there is a paucity of research on family abuse 
among Hispanics. This study examined the 
prevalence of spousal abuse among predomi- 
nantly low-income Hispanic patients of two ru- 



ral health care clinics. The correlation of certain 
social factors to domestic violence also was ex- 
amined. Survey data were collected from 155 
adult female patients. Findings revealed a 19 
percent prevalence rate. This rate corresponds 
to recent measures of domestic abuse nation- 
wide. A bivariate analysis showed a significant 
positive relationship between spousal abuse and 
drug/alcohol use by victims' intimate partners. 
Abuse also was significantly related to the com- 
munity location of the health care clinics. The 
article concludes by discussing implications of 
the study for rural domestic violence interven- 
tion, treatment, and research. 



18 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Emergency Department-Based Study of Risk 
Factors for Acute Injury from Domestic Violence 
Against Women 

Kyriacou, D.N.; McCabe, F.; Anglin, D.; et a/. 
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 31(4): 502-506, 
1998 

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the as- 
sociations between selected socioeconomic risk 
factors and acute injury from domestic violence 
against women. The authors conducted a pre- 
liminary matched case-control study to measure 
the association of selected predictor variables 
with acute injury from domestic violence against 
women. Patients identified as cases were His- 
panic or white female emergency department 
patients, ages 16 to 65, with acute injury sus- 
tained from physical assault by an intimate male 
partner. Cases were selected for inclusion in the 
study if they reported or admitted acute physi- 
cal assault by their male partners. Controls were 
selected from non-case female emergency de- 
partment (ED) patients so as to represent the 
base population of the cases and enhance com- 
parability. Two controls were matched to each 



case. The socioeconomic predictor variables 
examined were the education level, employ- 
ment status, history of alcohol abuse, and his- 
tory of drug abuse of the male partner and the 
education level and cohabitation status of the 
female partner. Forty-six cases were identified 
and included in the study. The age range was 
16 to 51 years (mean, 33 years). There were 26 
(57 percent) Hispanic and 20 (43 percent) white 
cases. The strongest predictor for acute injury 
from domestic violence in these patients was a 
history of alcohol abuse by the male partner, as 
reported by the female partner (odds ratio, 
12.9). The remaining predictor variables were 
weakly associated or not associated with 
domestic violence. One-half of the cases stated 
that their male partners were intoxicated with 
alcohol at the time of assault. Of the socioeco- 
nomic variables examined in this preliminary 
study, a history of alcohol abuse by the male 
partner, as reported by the female partner, was 
the strongest predictor for acute injury from 
domestic violence. A large-scale, multicenter, 
ED-based study is needed to clarify the relation 
among alcohol abuse, other socioeconomic fac- 
tors, and acute physical assaults against women 
by their intimate male partners. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



19 



Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of 
Violence Against Wnmen: Findings from the 
National Vinlence Against Women Survey 1998 

National Institute of Justice and Centers for Dis- 
ease Control and Prevention 

November 1998 

Available from NIJ and CDC Web sites at 
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/vawprog/pubs.html 

Jointly sponsored by the National Institute of 
Justice (NIJ) and the Centers for Disease Control 
and Prevention (CDC), the NVAW Survey is 
based on a national telephone survey using ran- 
dom digit dialing on violence against women, 
conducted from November 1995 to May 1996. 
A total of 8,000 women and 8,005 men ages 1 8 
and older were interviewed and asked to report 
on events that spanned the 12 months before 
their interview. The survey provides compara- 
ble data on women's and men's experiences 
with violent victimization. It differs from the 
NCVS in several ways: The NVAW Survey uses 



more questions (e.g., five questions compared 
to only two for NCVS to screen for rape victimi- 
zation), with more explicit cuing, it focuses less 
on narrowly defined violent crimes by using the 
Conflict Tactics Scale to query respondents 
about a variety of physical assaults, and it counts 
each victimization as a separate attack, whereas 
published NCVS estimates count series victimi- 
zations (reports of six or more crimes within a 6- 
month period for which the respondent cannot 
recall details of each crime) as a single victimiza- 
tion, and the NVAW measures crimes such as 
stalking. NVAW responses revealed that physi- 
cal assault is widespread in American society: 
52 percent of surveyed women and 66 percent 
of surveyed men said they were physically as- 
saulted as a child by an adult caretaker or as an 
adult by any type of perpetrator. The NVAW 
Survey estimates of annual physical assaults are 
greater than the NCVS estimates. The NCVS 
estimate for 1994 is 4.1 million aggravated and 
simple assaults of women ages 12 and older and 
5.7 million aggravated and simple assaults of 
men ages 12 and older. 



20 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Relation of low-Severity Violence to Women's 



McCauley, J.; Kern, D.E.; Kolodner, K.; et al. 
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 13: 
687-691, 1998 

This study examines whether women who ex- 
perience low-severity violence differ in numbers 
of physical symptoms, psychological distress, or 
substance abuse from women who have never 
been abused and from women who experience 
high-severity violence. The study used a cross- 
sectional, self-administered, anonymous survey 
drawn from four community-based, primary 
care, and internal medicine practices. Survey 
respondents were 1,931 women ages 18 or 
older. The survey included questions on vio- 
lence; a checklist of 22 physical symptoms; the 
Symptom Checklist-22 (SCL-22) to measure de- 
pression, anxiety, somatization, and self-esteem; 
CAGE questions for alcohol use; and questions 
about past medical history. Low-severity vio- 
lence patients had been "pushed or grabbed" or 
had someone "threaten to hurt them or some- 
one they love" in the year before presentation. 
High-severity violence patients had been hit, 



slapped, kicked, burned, choked, or threatened 
or hurt with a weapon. Of the 1,931 women, 
47 met criteria for current low-severity violence 
without prior abuse, 79 met criteria for current 
high-severity violence without prior abuse, and 
1,257 had never experienced violence. The re- 
maining patients reported either childhood vio- 
lence or past adult abuse. When adjusted for 
socioeconomic characteristics, the number of 
physical symptoms increased with increasing 
severity of violence (4.3 for no violence, 5.3 for 
low-severity violence, 6.4 for high-severity vio- 
lence, p<.0001). Psychological distress also in- 
creased with increasing severity of violence 
(mean total SCL22 scores 32.6 for no violence, 
35.7 for low-severity violence, 39.5 for high- 
severity violence, p<.0001). Women with any 
current violence were more likely to have a his- 
tory of substance abuse (prevalence ratio [PR] 
1 .8 for low-severity, 1 .9 for high-severity vio- 
lence) and to have a substance-abusing partner 
(PR 2.4 for both violence groups). In this study, 
even low-severity violence was associated with 
physical and psychological health problems in 
women. The data suggest a dose-response rela- 
tion between the severity of violence and the 
degree of physical and psychological distress. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



Characteristics of Participants in Domestic 
Vinlence: Assessment at the Scene of Domestic 
Assault 

Brookoff, D.; O'Brien, K.K.; Cook, C.S.; et a/. 
Journal of the American Medical Association, 
277(17): 1369-1373, 1997 

Using a consecutive-sample survey study con- 
ducted at the scenes of police calls for domestic 
assault in Memphis, TN, in 1995, this study 
evaluates the characteristics of victims and per- 
petrators of domestic assault. A total of 1 36 par- 
ticipants (72 victims and 64 assailants) involved 
in 62 incidents of domestic violence and 75 
adult family members at the scene were inter- 
viewed, using a confidential survey accompa- 
nied by a review of police records. Of 62 
episodes of domestic assault, 42 (68 percent) 
involved weapons, and 11 (15 percent) resulted 
in serious injury. Fifty-five (89 percent) of 62 



assault victims reported previous assaults by 
their current assailants — 19 (35 percent) re- 
ported being assaulted daily. Although nearly all 
assault victims had called the police for help on 
previous occasions, only 12 (22 percent) re- 
ported having ever sought medical care, coun- 
seling, or shelter because of domestic assault. 
Sixty (92 percent) of the 64 assailants reportedly 
used alcohol or other substances on the day of 
the assault. Of the assailants, 28 (44 percent) 
had a history of arrest for charges related to vio- 
lence, and 46 (72 percent) had an arrest for 
substance abuse. Eleven (1 5 percent) of the vic- 
tims were children. Children directly witnessed 
53 (85 percent) of the assaults. Most victims of 
domestic violence who had called the police 
rarely used medical or mental health facilities 
for problems related to family violence despite 
frequent assaults. Victims and assailants were 
willing to discuss their histories of family vio- 
lence and undergo assessments at the scenes of 
police calls. 



A Silent Minority: Battered American Indian 
Women 



Norton, I.M.; Manson, S.M. 
Journal of Family Violence, 10(3): 
1995 



307-318, 



This study compares a mental health needs as- 
sessment survey of 198 American Indian 
women with interviews of 16 American Indian 
women requesting counseling for domestic vio- 
lence at an urban Indian health center, using 
standardized measures. The majority of the 
women requesting services were not married, a 



majority had low family incomes, and both the 
women and their partners abused substances. 
All of the women experienced increased 
depression and stress as a result of the battering. 
Women who reported a history of domestic 
violence on the needs assessment survey 
were more likely to be separated or divorced 
and reported more problems with alcohol 
than the women with no history of domestic 
violence. The results of the domestic violence 
program interviews are compared to the 
mental health needs assessment survey and 
studies of battered women living in shelters. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Substance Use, Risky Behaviors, and Victimiza- 
tion Among a U.S. National Adolescent Sample 

Windle, M. 

Addiction, 89: 175-182, 1994 

Data from the National Adolescent Student 
Health Survey were used to study the interrela- 
tions among substance use, risky (dangerous) 
behaviors, and victimization among 8th and 
10th graders. Pearson correlations indicated 
significant associations between substance use 



and both higher levels of risky behaviors (e.g., 
hitchhiking, going on a blind date) and victimi- 
zation among adolescents. Regression analyses 
indicated the potency of risky behaviors as a 
predictor of victimization for male adolescents, 
and a significant risky behavior by illicit drug use 
interaction for female adolescents. Results are 
discussed with regard to potential short-and 
long-term health consequences of risky behav- 
iors and violent victimization for psychological 
development in adolescence and adulthood. 



Battering and Substance Abuse 

Childhood Sexual Vinlence, Partner Violence, 
and Crack Cncaine 

Boyd, CJ.; Holmes, C. 

Journal of Addictions Nursing, 10(3): 123-130, 
1998 

The association between childhood sexual 
abuse and current partner violence is examined 
in this study of a sample of women who smoke 
crack cocaine. The study focuses on partici- 



pants' descriptive reports of childhood sexual 
violence and partner violence. Consistent 
with previous research, women were 
more likely to report being slapped, kicked, 
bitten, or beaten than they reported perpertrat- 
ing the violence. A small percentage of 
women (12 percent) reported being in mutually 
violent relationships. No association was found 
among a previous history of childhood 
sexual trauma and current partner violence. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



Screening Men for Partner Violence in a 
Primary Care Setting: A New Strategy fnr 
Detecting Domestic Violence 

Oriel, K.A.; Fleming, M.F. 
Journal of Family Practice, 46(6): 493-498, 
1998 

Health care domestic violence initiatives have 
given little attention to screening men for vio- 
lent behavior toward their partners. This study 
assesses whether men would answer questions 
about partner violence in a health care setting, 
estimates the prevalence of violent behavior in 
male primary care patients, and identifies char- 
acteristics associated with violent behavior using 
an anonymous written survey at three family 
medicine clinics. The survey instrument in- 



cluded the Conflict Tactics Scale to measure 
aggressive and violent behavior and standard 
demographic and health behaviors questions. 
During the study, 375 men were seen. Of these, 
317 (85 percent) participated and 237 met in- 
clusion criteria. Thirty-two men (13.5 percent, 
95 percent confidence interval [CI], 9.1-17.9) 
disclosed physical violence toward their 
partner in the previous 12 months. Ten men 
(4.2 percent, 95 percent CI, 3.7-4.8) reported 
severe violence. Men with increased alcohol 
consumption, depression, or history of abuse as 
children were more likely to report violent 
behavior. The presence of all three variables 
resulted in a probability of violence of 41 per- 
cent, compared with a baseline probability 
of 7 percent if no risk factors were present. 



Snciodemographic Predictors and Cultural 
Sarriers to Help-Seeking Behavior by latina 
and Anglo Americao Battered Women 

West, CM.; Kantor, G.K.; and Jasinski, J.L. 
Violence and Victims, 13(4): 361-375, 1998 

Data from a national survey were used to inves- 
tigate the help-seeking efforts of 1,970 Latinas 
(Mexican, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican) 
and Anglo-American women who experienced 
battering by intimate partners. The findings re- 
vealed that battered Latinas were significantly 
younger, less educated, and more impoverished 
than Anglo women. In addition, Latinas more 
often categorized their marriages as male- 



dominated and their husbands as heavy drink- 
ers. Bivariate analyses showed that Latinas who 
sought help were significantly more acculturated 
and more likely to have a heavy-drinking 
husband than those who did not seek help. 
Although battered women were active 
help-seekers, Latinas underused both infor- 
mal and formal resources relative to 
Anglo women, with Mexican women least 
likely to seek assistance. When sociodemo- 
graphic predictors of help-seeking were ana- 
lyzed, being youthful and Anglo significantly 
increased the odds of help-seeking efforts. Low 
acculturation, as measured by preference for 
the Spanish language, was the only significant 
cultural barrier to help-seeking by Latinas. 



24 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Using Social Indicators to Predict Addictioo 

Mammo, A; French, J.F. 

Substance Use and Misuse, 33(12): 2499-2513, 
1998 

Because of cost and other constraints, States 
often find it difficult to estimate need for treat- 
ment of alcohol-related problems from routine 
surveys. The social undesirability of illegal drug 
use makes the assessment of need for treatment 
of their use even more difficult. This paper uses 
independently obtained treatment need esti- 



mates to provide parameters for short-term pre- 
diction. The authors obtained the parameters by 
regressing the proportions of people addicted to 
substances in counties on social-indicator- 
based relative treatment need estimates for 
substances. Substance abuse indicators included 
domestic violence and substance-related 
arrests, substance-related mortality, and number 
of alcohol retail outlets. In addition to integrat- 
ing estimates coming from independent 
sources, this approach presents an important 
tool for planning and resource allocation. 



Alcohol Dependence and Domestic Violeoce: 
locideoce and Treatment Implications 

Maiden, R.P. 

Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 15(2): 31-50, 
1997 

The study reviewed measured the incidence of 
domestic violence among alcoholics and the 
reduction of violence after completion of treat- 
ment and sought to identify variables that could 
be attributable to reducing domestic violence in 
recovering alcoholics. Data were collected on 



the alcoholism treatment, recovery experience, 
and marital profile of 80 male alcoholics, ages 
20 to 65. Subjects also responded to the 
Conflict Tactics Scale. Results show that alcohol- 
ism treatment substantially contributes to 
reducing the incidence of domestic violence but 
does not eliminate it. Recovering alcoholics may 
be able to control physically aggressive behav- 
iors in the absence of alcohol abuse but con- 
tinue to experience difficulty in mediating 
domestic conflicts. Overall findings support 
the need to intervene and treat alcohol abuse 
as a means of reducing domestic violence. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



Double Your Trouble: Dual Arrest in Family 
Violence 

Martin, M.E. 

Journal of Family Violence, 12(2): 139-157, 
1997 

The article describes the incidence and charac- 
teristics of dual arrest incidents in Connecticut 
following implementation of mandatory arrest 
legislation. Data were drawn from 4,138 
disposed family violence cases in Connecti- 
cut's criminal court, 448 arrest records, 



and 90 prosecutor files. Of the 448 cases dis- 
posed, 33 percent were dual arrests. Persons 
subject to dual arrest were primarily white, 
young, non-urban, unmarried, employed per- 
sons. The incident was likely to involve alcohol 
or drug use and physical beating with hands or 
fists. Forty percent of the women arrested were 
previously victimized in a domestic violence 
incident. Findings suggest that dual arrests 
may reflect both the differential use of violence 
in domestic relations and the overenforce- 
ment of policy by some police departments. 






Ethnic Adaptations to Occupational Strain: Work- 
Related Stress, Drinking, and Wife Assault 
Among Anglu and Hispanic Husbands 

Jasinski, J.L.; Asdigian, N.L; and Kantor, G.K. 
journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12(6): 814- 
831, 1997 

Previous research has established that both 
work stress and drinking are associated with in- 
creased risks for wife assaults. However, prior 
studies have not considered whether these 
relationships vary by ethnicity. This study used 
data from the 1992 National Alcohol and 



Family Violence Survey, a national household 
survey of 1,970 families including an oversam- 
ple of Hispanic families, to examine relation- 
ships among several types of stressors associated 
with the workplace, heavy drinking, and wife 
assaults. The results show that Anglo and His- 
panic husbands each experienced different 
types of work stress, and they coped with those 
stressors differently. Among Hispanic husbands, 
all work stressors examined were associated 
with increased levels of both drinking and 
violence. In contrast, those same work stress- 
ors were associated with elevated levels of 
drinking, but not violence, among Anglos. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Violence, Trauma and Substance Abuse 

Dunnegan, S.W. 

Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 29(4): 345-351, 
1997 

A review of the relevant literature concerning 
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), violence, 
and domestic violence suggests that violent be- 
havior, trauma, and substance abuse have a 
substantial connection, and that shame is a 
powerful agent for rage. Shame permeates 
many levels of society: the individual, the 
family, institutions, and the community. Crimi- 
nal justice system policies are directed toward 
promoting more shame in a population 



that has been saturated with shame in many 
levels of the culture. Attention is focused on the 
role of substance abuse in the cycle of violence. 
Violent behavior, violent individuals, and vic- 
tims of violence are deeply affected emotion- 
ally, physically, politically, and spiritually by 
drug use. This suggests that any program de- 
signed to promote healing violent behavior, for 
victims or perpetrators, should include attention 
to each of these spheres. The author describes a 
program developed in the San Francisco City 
and County jails that includes a stress reduction 
group, a personal writing group, a partner abuse 
group, and an anger and conflict management 
group. 



The Incidence of Dnmestic Violence Among 
Alcoholic EAP Clieots Before and After 
Treatment 

Maiden, HP. 

Employee Assistance Quarterly, 11(3): 21-46, 
1996 

This study examines the effect of an employee 
assistance program (EAP) on domestic violence 
with 80 clients referred for alcoholism treat- 
ment. Subjects completed the Conflict Tactics 



Scale. Ninety-four percent of subjects had en- 
gaged in behavior ranging from verbal intimida- 
tion to severe physical aggression before 
intervention. Moderate physical aggression 
and verbal intimidation continued to be re- 
ported after intervention. Regular attendance at 
Alcoholics Anonymous and frequent sponsor 
contact were significant in reducing domestic 
violence. Postintervention domestic violence 
suggests a continued pattern of violence 
but with less frequency and severity. Implica- 
tions for EAP practitioners are considered. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



27 



Prospective Prediction of Husband Marital 
Aggressioo Within Newljwed Couples 

Leonard, K.E.; Senchak, M. 
journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3): 369- 
380, 1996 

This study prospectively examined a social in- 
teractional model of husband marital aggres- 
sion. Young couples were assessed at the time 
of their first marriage with respect to marital 
conflict styles, alcohol consumption, hostility, 



gender identity, perceived power inequity, and 
history of family violence. Couples were 
reassessed at their 1-year anniversary, and 
information concerning marital aggression 
was collected. Most of the constructs were pro- 
spectively related to husband aggression, but 
these relationships were largely mediated 
through marital conflict styles and husband's 
alcohol consumption, which in turn were 
influenced by the husband's hostility, gend- 
er identity, and perceived power identity. 



Alcohol Abuse, Wife Assault, and Power Needs 

Gondolf, E.W. 

Social Service Review, 69(2): 274-284, 1995 

This study examines wife assault through 
the use of power theory, which suggests that 



alcohol abuse and wife assault are manifesta- 
tions of an underlying need for power and con- 
trol related to gender-based distortions and 
insecurities. This theory implies that alcohol 
abuse and wife assault should be treated con- 
jointly as weapons of power assertion and con- 
trol. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



The "Battering Syndrome": Prevalence and 
Clinical Characteristics of Domestic Violence in 
Primary Care Internal Medicine Practices 

McCauley, J.; Kern, D.E.; Kolodner, K.; Dill, L; 

etal. 
Annals of Internal Medicine, 123: 737-746, 

1995 

Domestic violence is, unarguably, a leading 
women's health issue and research is ongoing to 
estimate its prevalence, severity, causes, and 
clinical correlates. The most recent nationally 
representative data bearing on these issues are 
now more than a decade old, so there is defini- 
tive value in more locally focused studies. Issues 
of measurement and definition are only the 
most obvious among a host of methodologic 
difficulties that plague research on this topic. 
The authors report results for a sample of 1,952 
female patients of varied age and social back- 
ground who presented for care at any of four 
primary care internal medicine clinics in Balti- 
more (all of them associated with the Johns 
Hopkins School of Medicine). Using previously 
validated measures, the results suggest that 1 in 
20 women have experienced domestic violence 
at least once in the previous year, 1 in 5 at 
some point in the adult lifetime, 1 in 3 at some 
point since birth. Although these numbers seem 
high, they are in fact somewhat lower than 



other estimates of current abuse, estimates that 
range upward to as high as 14 percent in at 
least some studies in primary care settings. It is 
likely, although not certain, that varying defini- 
tions and methods of data collection account 
for the disparities across studies (versus, for ex- 
ample, true differences from city to city or sam- 
ple to sample in the actual rates of abuse). Con- 
cerning demographic and clinical correlates, 
rates of domestic violence were elevated among 
younger women; single, divorced, or separated 
women; poor women; women who abused al- 
cohol and drugs; and women living with men 
who abused alcohol and drugs. Abused women 
also scored higher than non-abused women on 
measures of anxiety, depression, and somatiza- 
tion and lower on measures of self-esteem. Sui- 
cide attempts and emergency room visits were 
also significantly higher among currently abused 
women than others. The correlations between 
abuse and these various social, demographic, 
psychological, and clinical factors are sufficiently 
strong to allow us to speak of a "battering syn- 
drome." Part of the syndrome — perhaps the 
truly fatal part — is the silence among its victims. 
Very few of the women in this study reported 
discussing their domestic violence histories with 
their physicians; evidence from other research 
shows that physicians are not likely to broach 
this topic either. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



29 



Substance Abuse and the Domestic Assault 
of Women 

Bennett, L.W. 

Social Work, 40(6): 760-772, 1995 

This article reviews research on the relationship 
between alcohol and drug use and domestic 
violence against women and discusses issues of 
assessment and intervention, including patterns 
of substance abuse. Ways in which substance 



abuse are likely to increase the chance of 
woman abuse are discussed, including the ef- 
fects of disinhibition, cognitive disruption, and 
individual power concerns. While no single, 
coherent model of the substance abuse-woman 
abuse relationship exists, several factors that 
have empirical support as antecedents or me- 
diators of this relationship are presented, includ- 
ing witnessing abuse as a child, income or so- 
cioeconomic status, general violence outside 
the family, age, and personality characteristics. 



Attributions for Episodes of Marital Aggression: 
The Effects of Aggression Severity and Alcohol 
Use 

Senchak, M.; Leonard, K.E. 

Journal of Family Violence, 9(4): 371-381 , 1 994 

This study examined attributions for husband- 
to-wife marital aggression as a function of ag- 
gression severity and husbands' alcohol use. 
Subjects were a sample of 1 1 7 wives (mean age 
23.89) and 109 husbands (mean age 24.72) 



who reported an episode of serious physical 
aggression during a structured interview, con- 
ducted at 1 year after marriage. Results show 
sober husbands tended to blame their wives 
for severe aggression, but, unexpectedly, drink- 
ing husbands tended to assume responsibility 
for severe aggression. In contrast, wives' attribu- 
tions were influenced mainly by severity. 
Wives held husbands' behavior more responsi- 
ble for severe aggression than their own behav- 
ior and held husbands' character much 
more responsible than their own character. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Stalking and Femicide 



Alcohol and Illicit Drug Abuse and the Risk of 
Violent Death in the Home 

Rivara, F.P.; Mueller, B.A.; Somes, C; Mendoza, 

C.T.; et al. 
journal of the American Medical Association, 

278(7): 569-575, 1997 

This study analyzed data from a case-control 
study of risk factors for homicide and suicide in 
three large metropolitan counties including 388 
homicide cases, 438 suicide cases, and equal 
numbers of control matched for age, sex, race, 
and neighborhood and county. Structured in- 
terviews were conducted with proxy respon- 
dents close to the decedents to obtain informa- 
tion about use of alcohol or illicit drugs, 



and history of alcohol-related hospitalization or 
trouble at work resulting from drinking by the 
subject. Data about alcohol use by others living 
in the same house as the subject were also ob- 
tained. The risks of homicide and suicide asso- 
ciated with substance use were elevated, as 
were the risks violent death associated with sev- 
eral indicators of chronic alcohol abuse. In addi- 
tion, nondrinkers living in a home with alcohol 
users were at increased risk of homicide, and 
non-drug-using individuals residing in homes 
with illicit drug users were at greatly increased 
risk of homicide. The concept of the individual 
at risk of homicide should be broadened to in- 
clude not only the abuser but also those who 
may be at risk because of their exposure to oth- 
ers. 



Murder-Suicide of the Jealous Parannia Type: A 
Multicenter Statistical Pilnt Study 

Palermo, G.B.; Smith, M.B.; Jenzten, J.M.; 
Henry, I.E.; et al. 

American journal of Forensic Medicine and Pa- 
thology, 18(4): 374-383, 1997 

The authors present a pilot statistical study of 
murder-suicide comprising 32 cases from the 
years 1990-1992, collected from the offices of 
the medical examiners of seven counties in five 
States. The study includes brief reviews of pre- 
vious statistical surveys of murder, murder- 



suicide, and suicide. This study's conclusions 
parallel the findings of previous research on the 
demographic characteristics of the perpetrators 
of murder-suicide, the relationship between 
killers and victims, the types of weapons used, 
locations of the incidents, and the time intervals 
between the murder and suicide. It also high- 
lights the similarities between the characteris- 
tics of the perpetrator of murder-suicide 
and those of persons who commit only 
suicide, supporting the thesis that murder- 
suicide is an extended suicide. Suggestions for 
prevention of such a crime are offered. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



Risk Factors for Violent Death of Womeo in the 
Home 

Bailey, J.E.; Kellermann, A.L.; Somes, G.W.; Ban- 
ton, J.G.; et al. 

Archives of Internal Medicine, 157(7): 777-782, 
1997 

This study identified risk factors for violent 
death of women in the home using a subgroup 
analysis of a large population-based case-control 
study database. Cases were defined as all homi- 
cides and suicides occurring in the homes of 
female victims in three metropolitan counties 
(Shelby County, TN; King County, WA; and 



Cuyahoga County, OH) over a 5-year period. 
The study identified 266 cases, including 143 
homicides and 123 suicides. Randomly selected 
control subjects were matched to the victims by 
neighborhood, sex, race, and age range. Expo- 
sures to potential risk factors were ascertained 
by interviewing a proxy for the victim 3 to 6 
weeks after the violent death occurred. These 
answers were compared with those obtained 
from controls using matched-pairs methods. 
The study found that household use of illicit 
drugs, domestic violence, and readily available 
firearms place women at particularly high 
risk of homicide at the hands of a spouse, an 
intimate acquaintance, or a close relative. 






Stalking Behaviors Within Domestic Violence 

Burgess, A.W.; Baker, T.; Greening, D.; Hartman, 

G.R.; et al. 
journal of Family Violence, 12(4): 389-403, 

1997 

The authors examined data from 120 male and 
female batterers of varied age and marital, edu- 
cational, and economic status, who attended 
group treatment for batterers or who were 
charged with domestic violence from January to 



February 1996 in a district court setting. The 
study produced the following findings: stalkers 
tended to live alone, were less likely to be mar- 
ried, were not living with children, and used 
more alcohol than non-stalkers. They also 
tended to have had a history of stalking offenses 
and of being abused themselves. Factor analysis 
found three stalking groupings: one in which 
discrediting was the key, a second revolving 
around love turning to hate, and a third factor 
included violent confrontation with the ex- 
partner. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Safe at Home? Domestic Violence and Other 
Homicides Among Womeo in New Mexico 

Arbuckle, J.; Olson, L; Howard, M.; Brillman, J.; 

et al. 
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 27(2): 210-215, 

1996 

This study is designed to define the contribution 
of domestic violence (DV) to homicides in 
women in New Mexico and to examine differ- 
ences in ethnicity, mechanism, previous docu- 
mented injuries, incidence of sexual assault, 
and alcohol or illicit drug use between DV- and 
non-DV-related homicides. The authors con- 
ducted a retrospective analysis of reports of the 
State office of the medical investigator (OMI) for 
all female homicides from 1990 to 1993 in New 
Mexico. A homicide was defined as being re- 
lated to DV if the perpetrator was a current or 
former male intimate partner. The [chi]2 and 
Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data. 
The OMI investigated 134 homicides in 
women, for an overall fatality rate of 4.3 per 
100,000. A male intimate partner was the per- 
petrator in 62 cases (46 percent). The rate of 
DV homicide among American Indians 



(4.9 per 100,000) was significantly higher than 
that among Hispanics (1.7) and non-Hispanic 
whites (1.8) (RR = 2.8; 95 percent confidence 
interval [CI], 1.5 to 5.1). Firearms were almost 
two times as likely to be used in DV homicides 
as in non-DV homicides (RR = 1.8; 95 percent 
CI, 1.2 to 2.6). Evidence of old injuries was 
found more often in DV homicide cases (35.5 
percent) than in non-DV cases (8.3 percent) (RR 
= 4.3; 95 percent CI, 1.8 to 9.8). The presence 
of alcohol or other drugs was higher among 
non-DV homicide victims (69 percent) than DV 
homicide victims (54.3 percent)(P=.03). The 
authors concluded that American Indian 
women are at particularly high risk of homicide, 
including DV homicide. Firearms were overrep- 
resented in DV homicides, suggesting that re- 
moving firearms from the homes of previous DV 
perpetrators would be a useful public health 
strategy. Alcohol or illicit drugs were found in 
approximately two-thirds of New Mexico 
women who were victims of homicide. The 
high prevalence of history of previous injuries 
among DV homicide victims indicates that early 
identification of DV victims in the emergency 
department and other health care settings is an 
important point of intervention. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



33 



Substance Abuse in Rape and Sexual Assault 



The Contribution of Alcohol to the Likelihood 
of Completion and Severity of Injury in Rape 



Martin, S.E.; Bachman, R. 

Violence Against Women, 4(6): 694-712, 1998 

This study examined the effect of the perpetra- 
tor's alcohol consumption on the probability 
that a rape will be completed and the likely- 
hood and seriousness of physical injuries 
to victims of rape. Using data on 279 



rape victims from the National Crime Victimiza- 
tion Survey of the Bureau of Justice Statistics 
for 1992-1994, the authors test three hypothe- 
ses regarding the effect of perpetrator drinking, 
using multivariate models to control for 
situational factors and victims' demographic 
characteristics. Data suggest that drink- 
ing by the perpetrator decreases the likelihood 
that a rape will be completed, increases the 
likelihood of victim injury, and shows no rela- 
tionship between perpetrator drinking and 
the victim's need for medical care. 



Sexual Coercioo, Domestic Violeoce, and 
Negotiating Condom Use Among low-Income 
African American Women 

Kalichman, S.C.; Williams, E.A.; Cherry, G; 

Belcher, L; and Nachimson, D. 
journal of Women's Health, 7(3): 371-378, 

1998 

Coercion to engage in unwanted sex places 
women at risk for HIV infection. A survey of 
125 African-American women (ages 18 to 58) 
living in low-income housing developments in 
Fulton County, GA, showed that 53 women (42 
percent) had engaged in unwanted sex because 
a male partner threatened to use force or used 



force to obtain sexual access. Women who had 
been sexually coerced were more likely to have 
used marijuana and crack cocaine and to have 
abused alcohol. Coerced women were 
more likely to have been physically abused by 
a domestic partner. These women were also 
more likely to perceive that requesting male 
partners to use condoms would create a poten- 
tially violent situation. These results suggest that 
women experience an interactive constellation 
of social problems that create risks for HIV 
infection, and therefore that efforts to 
prevent HIV infection among women will 
require multifaceted intervention strategies to 
reach both men and women at risk. 



34 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Alcohol and Dating Risk Factors for Sexual 
Assault Among College Women 

Abbey, A; Ross, L.T.; McDuffie, D.; and 

McAuslan, P. 
Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20(1): 147- 

169, 1996 

This study examined the relationship between 
alcohol consumption and dating risk factors for 
sexual assault with 1,160 undergraduate 
women. More than half of the subjects had ex- 
perienced some form of sexual assault. 
Ninety-five percent of these assaults were 



committed by someone known to the subject, 
and almost half involved alcohol consumption 
by the man, the woman, or both. Discrimi- 
nant function analyses indicated that dating, 
sexual, and misperception experiences and 
alcohol consumption during these experiences 
predicted assault group status. Alcohol 
consumption during consensual sex and sexual 
misperceptions were positively related to 
alcohol consumption during the sexual assault. 
The predictors of assault group status were 
similar for black and white subjects. Sugges- 
tions are made for combining alcohol 
and sexual assault prevention programming. 



Through Her Eyes: Factors Affecting Women's 
Perceptinn of and Resistance to Acquaintance 
Sexual Aggressinn Threat 

Norris, J.; Nurius, P.S.; and Dimeff, LA. 
Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20(1): 123- 
145,1996 

This study investigated the effect of social con- 
texts on 66 college sorority women's percep- 
tions of and responses to sexual aggres- 
sion threat by fraternity acquaintances. 



Questionnaire and focus group findings indicate 
that greater psychological barriers to response 
were associated with indirect resistance strate- 
gies. Alcohol consumption was a barrier to ef- 
fective resistance, possibly by increasing embar- 
rassment and involving a belief that the abuse 
was deserved. Subjects held a high sense of 
invulnerability to victimization and an optimistic 
belief in their ability to resist sexual aggres- 
sion. Previously victimized subjects indicated 
greater psychological barriers to resistance. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



Adverse Factors Associated With Forced Sex 
Among Southern Adolescent Girls 

Nagy, S.; DiClemente, R.; and Adcock, AG. 
Pediatrics, 96(5): 944-946, 1995 

This study examines adverse behavioral and 
psychological factors associated with forced sex 
experiences of adolescent girls compared with 
their sexually active counterparts. The study 
used an anonymous self-report survey examin- 
ing an array of psychosocial items, to which 
3,124 8th- and 10th-grade female students re- 
sponded. Sexually-abused girls were more likely 
to have been pregnant, to have initiated sexual 
intercourse at a younger age, to indicate illegal 



drug use, to have feelings of expression, to ex- 
press more frequent suicidal ideation, and to 
have been physically abused. Behaviors such as 
gateway drug use, truancy, binge drinking of 
alcohol, and participation in violent episodes 
that were previously identified as indicators of 
sexual abuse did not distinguish between sexu- 
ally active adolescents and those who had been 
sexually abused. Physicians should consider 
carefully a structured series of questions relating 
to behaviors as one approach in determining 
the risk of sexual abuse. Positive responses to 
young sexual initiation, pregnancy, illegal drug 
use, negative mental health states, and evi- 
dence of physical abuse are potential markers of 
sexual abuse in adolescent female clients. 



A Prospective Analysis nf the Relationships 
Among Sexoal Assaolt Experiences 

Gidycz, C.A.; Hanson, K.; and Layman, M.J. 
Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19(1): 5- 
1995 



19, 



This article is an extension of earlier work; it 
examines the link among sexual victimization 
experiences for 178 college women. Respon- 
dents were evaluated for child and adolescent 
sexual victimization, family adjustment, alcohol 



use, psychological adjustment, interpersonal 
functioning, and sexual behavior. They were 
reevaluated at 3, 5-6, and 9 months for adult 
victimization, psychological adjustment, inter- 
personal functioning, and sexual behavior. Log 
linear analysis indicated that chances of being 
victimized in one time period increased with 
greater severity of victimization in the preceding 
time period. The path analysis assessing the 
mediating effects of these variables on victimiza- 
tion experiences was partially supported. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Self-Reported Alcohol Expectaocies and 
Post-Drinking Sexoal Inferences About Women 

George, W.H.; Cue, K.L.; Lopez, P.A.; et al. 
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(2): 
164-186, 1995 

This study examined whether perceivers' alco- 
hol expectancies would influence their post- 
drinking sexual inferences about women. 
Two hundred thirty-five undergraduates 
completed a brief expectancy measure, read a 
vignette depicting a beer- or cola-drinking 



woman, and evaluated the woman. Subjects 
rated the beer-drinking woman as more sexual 
than her cola-drinking counterpart. Male but 
not female subjects exhibited the predicted ex- 
pectancy by drink interaction. High expectancy 
men but not low expectancy men rated the 
beer-drinking woman as more likely to engage 
in sexual behaviors than the cola-drinking 
woman. This finding was evident on behavior- 
ally specific measures, but not on trait-like 
measures. It seems that post-drinking sexual in- 
ferences originate in stereotype and at least for 
men are modified by personal expectancies 
drawn from actual and vicarious experiences. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



37 



The Vicious Cycle: Substance Abuse as a 
Cunsequence of Intimate-Partner Vinlence 



The interrelationships Between Abase, 
Substance Use, ani Psychosocial Stress 



Curry, M.A. 

American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 
24(4): 211, 1999 

Using a prospective study of 1,937 predomi- 
nantly low-income, ethnically diverse pregnant 
women in urban prenatal clinics, the study 
seeks to describe the association among abuse 
during pregnancy, substance use, and psycho- 
social stress. Three questions from the Abuse 
Assessment Screen were used to measure 
abuse. For the total sample, 25.7 percent re- 
ported physical abuse in the past year, 10.5 
percent physical abuse since pregnancy, and 
4.5 percent sexual abuse in the past year. Ado- 



lescents were significantly more likely to report 
any abuse (37.6 percent) than were adults (22.6 
percent) (chi-square = 44.94; df = 1; p < 
0.001). White abused women were significantly 
more likely to report tobacco use and alcohol. 
Abused Asian women were more likely 
to smoke as were women ethnically described 
as "other." The authors found a higher, 
but not statistically significant, rate of substance 
use among abused and non-abused African- 
American, Native American, and Hispanic 
women. Abused women of all races report- 
ed higher stress, less support from partners, 
less support from others, and lower 
self-esteem. Abuse during pregnancy is 
associated with an increased incidence of 
substance use and psychosocial stress. These 
relationships must be incorporated into 
the clinical care of abused pregnant women. 



A 2-Year longitudinal Analysis of the Relation- 
ships Between Violent Assault and Substance 
Abuse in Women 

Kilpatrick, D.G.; Acierno, R.; Resnick, H.S.; Best, 

C.L; and Saunders, B.E. 
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(5): 834- 

847, 1998 

Women's victimization by physical and sexual 
assault may lead to escalation of substance use, 
and reciprocally their substance use may in- 
crease risk of assault. The directionality of this 



relationship is addressed in a 3-wave longitudi- 
nal study involving a U.S. national probability 
sample of 3,006 women followed for 2 years. 
Wave 1 use of drugs, but not abuse of alcohol, 
increased the odds of new assault in the 
subsequent 2 years. Reciprocally, after a new 
assault, the odds of both alcohol abuse and 
drug use increased significantly, even among 
women with no pervious use of assault 
history. Findings support a vicious-cycle 
relationship in which substance use increase- 
es the risk of future assault and assault increase- 
es the risk of subsequent substance use. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Unmet Needs of Older Women in a Clinic 
Population: The Discovery of Possible Long- 
Term Sequelae of Domestic Violence 

Wolkenstein, B.H.; Sterman, L. 
Professional Psychology — Research and Practice, 
29(4): 341-348,1998 

The effects of prior domestic violence may sig- 
nificantly affect older women who seek mental 
health services. In two community mental 
health centers, older women frequently 



presented with depressive and anxious symp- 
toms, poor family relationships, multiple health 
problems, alcohol dependence (in themselves, 
their former spouses, and their children), and 
economic difficulties. Increased media attention 
to domestic violence often preceded first-time 
disclosure of abuse within their marriages, 
which often had occurred years ago. Peers 
and family members rarely provided ade- 
quate support. Practitioners should assess for 
prior abuse, and treatment must address 
the full spectrum of these clients' needs. 



Victimization Among Substance-Abusing Women: 
Worse Health Outcomes 

Liebschutz, J.M.; Mulvey, K.P.; and Samet, J.H. 
Archives of Internal Medicine, 157(10): 1093- 
1097, 1997 

Although women with a history of victimization 
are known to have increased somatic symp- 
toms, health care utilization, and substance 
abuse, the health effects of victimization on 
substance-abusing women are uncertain. This 
study interviewed 2,322 women seeking public- 
funded addiction services from September 1992 
to January 1996 to examine whether a history 
of victimization among substance-abusing 
women is associated with more medical prob- 
lems or emergency department visits. The study 
used bivariate and multivariate analyses to 
compare women with a lifetime history of 
physical or sexual abuse with those without 
such a history. Variables included episodic 
medical disease, chronic medical disease, re- 
cent emergency department visits, substance 
abuse characteristics, and demographic data. 
The prevalence of victimization was 42 percent. 



In bivariate analyses, the following variables had 
significant association with victimization histo- 
ries: episodic medical disease, recent emer- 
gency department visit, chronic medical dis- 
ease, primary care physician's awareness of sub- 
stance abuse history, ethnicity, and lower in- 
come. Alcohol and crack cocaine users had 
higher prevalence of victimization compared 
with heroin or non-users of crack cocaine 
(P=.001). In the logistic regression, the follow- 
ing variables remained independently and sig- 
nificantly associated with victimization: episodic 
medical disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95 per- 
cent confidence interval [CI], 1.70- 2.73), phy- 
sician awareness of substance abuse (OR, 1.78; 
95 percent CI, 1.42-2.23), emergency depart- 
ment visit (OR, 1.57; 95 percent CI, 1.22-2.03), 
chronic medical disease (OR, 1.51; 95 percent 
CI, 1.19-1.92), and lower income. Victimization 
in urban, poor, substance-abusing women is 
associated with more medical disease and 
health care utilization. Interventions that focus 
on the interconnected problems these women 
face may more effectively affect this challenging 
population. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



Violence and Substance Use Among North 
Carolina Pregnant Women 

Martin, S.; English, K.T.; Clark, K.A.; Cilenti, D.; 

etal. 
American Journal of Public Health, 86(7): 991- 

998, 1996 

Prenatal patients were studied to examine the 
proportion of women who had been violence 
victims, women's patterns of substance use 
(cigarettes, alcohol, and illicit drugs) before and 
during pregnancy, and relationships between 
violence and substance use. More than 2,000 
prenatal patients in North Carolina were 
screened for violence and substance use. Rela- 
tionships between violence and patterns of sub- 
stance use before and during pregnancy were 



examined, as well as women's continuation 
of substance use during pregnancy as a func- 
tion of violence and sociodemographic factors. 
Twenty-six percent of the women had been vio- 
lence victims during their lives. Before preg- 
nancy, 62 percent of the women had used one 
or more substances; during pregnancy, 31 per- 
cent had used one or more substances. Both 
before and during pregnancy, violence victims 
were significantly more likely than non-victims 
to use multiple substances. Continuation of sub- 
stance use during pregnancy was significantly 
more likely among violence victims than non- 
victims. Care providers should screen women 
for violence as well as for substance use and 
should ensure that women are provided with 
appropriate interventions. 



Substance-Abusing Wnmen: False Stereotypes 
and Real Needs 

Goldberg, M.E. 

Social Work, 40(6): 789-798, 1995 

This article reviews and interprets recent litera- 
ture on substance abuse problems and treat- 
ments among women. Data show that alcohol 
and drug abuse among women occurs at similar 
rates among poor and nonpoor people and 
among whites and minorities. Major risk factors 
include childhood sexual or physical abuse, 
adult victimization by domestic violence, 



and having a spouse or partner who is a sub- 
stance abuser. It is argued that standard treat- 
ment programs are based on male processes of 
recovery, and women with children face enor- 
mous problems of access to treatment. Although 
most studies have found that white women and 
minority women use substances during preg- 
nancy at similar rates, minority women 
are disproportionately tested for drug use and 
receive more child protective services interven- 
tions. Findings indicate that prevention of 
substance abuse-related problems among 
women requires more than simply education. 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Abuse During Pregnancy: Effects on Maternal 
Complicatinns and Birth Weight in Adult and 
Teenage Wnmen 

Parker, B.; McFarlane, J.; and Soeken, K. 
American journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 
84(3): 323-338, 1994 

This study examines the incidence of physical 
and sexual abuse in a sample of adult and teen 
pregnant women based upon 1,203 African- 
American, Hispanic, and white urban female 
residents who were screened for abuse on their 
first prenatal visit and in the second and third 
trimesters. Infant birth weight was obtained by 
record review. Abuse during pregnancy was 
reported by 20.6 percent of teens and 14.2 
percent of the adult women (P < .01). Both 
abused teens and adults were more likely than 



nonabused women to enter prenatal care in the 
third trimester. For the aggregate sample of 
1,203 women, abuse during pregnancy was a 
significant risk for low birth weight (LBW), as 
well as low maternal weight gain, infections, 
anemia, smoking, and alcohol or drug use. Us- 
ing Institute of Medicine risk factors for LBW, 
abused adults were at significantly greater risk 
for poor obstetric history, short inter-pregnancy 
interval, infections, anemia, smoking, and alco- 
hol or drug usage. Abused teens had a signifi- 
cantly greater risk for poor weight gain, first- or 
second-trimester bleeding, smoking, and alco- 
hol or drug use. One in five teens and one in six 
adult women experienced abuse during 
pregnancy. Abuse is related to LBW and late 
entry into prenatal care. Abuse can be 
documented readily with a short abuse assess- 
ment screen and interventions then initiated. 



Barriers tn Cooperation Between Domestic- 
Violence and Substance Ahuse Programs 

Bennett, /_.; Lawson, M. 

Families in Society: Journal of Contemporary 
Human Services, 75: 277-286, May 1994 

This is a survey of 388 staff and administrators, 
drawn from a statewide sample of 74 substance 
abuse and domestic violence programs, who 
completed a questionnaire on linkage, referral, 



impairments to interagency cooperation, and 
beliefs about cross-problem incidence. Subjects 
estimated that 46 percent of the male substance 
abusers currently in their care were batterers, 
60 percent of the female substance abusers 
were victims, and 42 percent of the women 
currently in domestic violence programs were 
substance abusers. Eighty percent of the sub- 
jects indicated that these clients would benefit 
from increased cooperation between substance 
abuse and domestic violence programs. 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



41 




Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) 
650 Massachusetts Avenue, NW., Room 8290 
Washington, DC 20226 
202-927-8500 

www.atf.treas.gov/ 

Bureau of Justice Statistics 

810 Seventh Street, NW. 

Washington, DC 20531 

202-307-0765 

www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs 

The following titles are available via the Bureau of 

Justice Statistics' Web site: 

The Spouse Murder Defendants in Large Urban 
Counties (NCJ#1 53256) 

The Survey of Adults on Probation (SAP) 

The Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facili- 
ties (SISCF) 

The Survey of Inmates in Local Jails (SILJ) 

Bureau of Primary Health Care 

Office of Minority and Women's Health 

Bureau of Primary Health Care 

4350 East-West Highway, 3rd Floor 

Bethesda, MD 20814 

301-594-4490 

www.hrsa.dhhs.gov/hrsa/omh/omh.htm 

Center for Mental Health Services 
Knowledge Exchange Network (KEN) 
P.O. Box 42490 
Washington, DC 2001 5 
800-789-2647 
www.mentalhealth.org/ 



ant Internet Situs 



Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services 

Administration (SAMHSA) 

5600 Fishers Lane, Suite 900 

Rockwall II Bldg. 

Rockville, MD 20857 

301-443-0365 

800-729-6686 (SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse 

for Alcohol and Drug Information) 

www.samhsa.gov/csap 

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) 

5600 Fishers Lane, Room 618 

Rockwall II Bldg. 

Rockville, MD 20857 

301-443-5052 

800-729-6686 (SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse 

for Alcohol and Drug Information) 

www.samhsa.gov/csat 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 

Office on Smoking and Health 

Public Information Branch 

4770 Buford Highway, NE. 

Atlanta, GA 30341-3724 

770-488-5708 

www.cdc.gov/tobacco 

Decision Support System for Prevention of Substance 

Abuse 

www.preventiondss.org 

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 
935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. 
Washington, DC 20535 
202-737-3759 
www.fbi.gov 



42 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Girl Power! (special prevention programs for girls 

under 1 5) 

www.health.org/gpovver 

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) 

Parklawn Building 

5600 Fishers Lane 

Rockville, MD 20857 

www.hrsa.dhhs.gov 

Health Topics A-Z 
www.cdc.gov/health/ 

Indian Health Service 

Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Program 

Room 6A-20 

5600 Fishers Lane 

Rockville, MD 20857 

301-443-4644 

www.ihs.gov 

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control 

(NCIPC) 

Mailstop K65 

4770 Buford Highway, NE. 

Atlanta, GA 30341-3724 

770-488-1506 

www.cdc.gov. ncipc/ 

National Health Information Center (NHIC) 

P.O. Box 11 33 

Washington, DC 2001 3-1 1 33 

301-565-4167 

800-336-4797 

www.nhic-nt.health.org 

The National Incident-Based Reporting System 

(NIBRS) 

www.nibrs.search.org 

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 

(NIAAA) 

6000 Executive Blvd., Suite 505 

Wilco Building 

Bethesda, MD 20892-7003 

301-443-1677 

www.niaaa.nih.gov 



National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) 

6001 Executive Blvd., Room 5213 

MSC 9561 

Bethesda, MD 20892-9561 

301-443-1124 

www.drugabuse.gov 

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) 

6001 Executive Blvd., Room 8184 

MSC 9663 

Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 

301-443-4513 

www.nimh.nih.gov 

National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
9000 Rockville Pike 
Bethesda, MD 20892 
301 -496-4000 
www.nih.gov 

National Library of Medicine (NLM) 
8600 Rockville Pike 
Bethesda, MD 20894 
301-594-5983 
www.nlm.nih.gov 

Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research 

National Institutes of Health 

Building 1, Room 326 

1 Center Drive 

Bethesda, MD 20892-0183 

wwwl .od.nih.gov/obssr/obssr.asp 

Office of Minority Health 
Bureau of Primary Health Care 
4350 East-West Highway, 3rd Floor 
Bethesda, MD 20814 
301-594-4490 
www.bphc.hrsa.gov/omwh/omwh.htm 

Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) 

P.O. Box 6000 

Rockville, MD 20849-6000 

800-666-3332 

www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



43 



Partnerships Against Violence Network (Pavnet) 
www.pavnet.org 

(This Federal partnership includes the U.S. Depart- 
ments of Agriculture, Defense, Education, Health 
and Human Services, Housing and Urban Develop- 
ment, Labor, and Justice.) 

SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and 

Drug Information (NCADI) 

P.O. Box 2345 

Rockville, MD 20847-2345 

800-729-6686 

800-487-4889 TDD 

www.health.org 

Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 
www.albany.edu/sourcebook/ 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Ad- 
ministration 
5600 Fishers Lane 
Rockville, MD 20857 
301-443-6315 
www.samhsa.gov 

The Uniform Crime Report 
fisher.lib/virginia.edu/crime/ 

U.S. Department of Justice 
950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. 
Washington, DC 20530-0001 
www.usdoj.gov 



OUer Resources 



American Bar Association Commission on Domestic 

Violence 

750 N. Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, I L 60611 

www.abanet.org/domviol 

American Council for Drug Education 

1 64 West 74th Street 

New York, NY 10023 

800-488-DRUG 

212-595-5810, X7860 

www/acde.org 



American Medical Association 
515 North State Street 
Chicago, I L 60610 
312-464-5000 
www.ama-assn.org 

AMA Women's Health Information Center 
www.ama-assn.org/special/womh/ 

American Medical Women's Association 
801 N. Fairfax Street, Suite 400 
Alexandria, VA 22314 
703-838-0500 

www.amwa-doc.org/ 

American Psychiatric Association 
1400 K Street, NW. 
Washington, DC 20005 
202-682-6000 

www.psych.org 

American Psychological Association 
750 First Street, NE. 
Washington, DC 20002-4242 
202-336-5500 
www.apa.org 

APA PsycNET® 
www.apa.org 

Ayuda (information about the rights of battered 
immigrant women) 
www.incacorp.com/ayuda 

Center of Alcohol Studies 
Rutgers University 
607 Allison Road 
Piscataway, NJ 08854-8001 
732-445-3568 
www.rci.rutgers.edu/~cas2/ 

Family Research Laboratory 

126 Horton Social Science Center 

University of New Hampshire 

Durham, NH 03824-3586 

603-862-1888 

www.unh.edu/frl 



Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Family Violence Prevention Fund 
383 Rhode Island Street, Suite 304 
San Francisco, CA 94103-5133 
415-252-8900 
www.fvpf.org/ 

Join Together (Gun Violence Project) 
www.jointogether.org/gv 

Muriel McQueen Fergusson Centre for Family Vio- 
lence Research 
678 Windsor Street 
Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 
Canada 
506-453-4788 
www. u n b . ca/we b/a rts/C F VR/ 

Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse 

School of Social Work 

University of Minnesota 

105 Peters Hall 

1 404 Gortner Avenue 

St. Paul, Minnesota 55108-6142 

612-624-0721 

800-646-2282 (For Minnesota residents only) 

www.mincava.umn.edu/ 

Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center 

2300 1 5th Avenue South 

Minneapolis, MN 55404 

612-728-2000 

nnic.com/miwrc.html 

Muslims Against Family Violence 
www.mpac.org/mafv/ 

National Alliance for Hispanic Health 
1 501 1 6th Street, NW. 
Washington, DC 20036-1401 
202-387-5000 
www.hispanichealth.org 



National Asian Pacific American Families Against 

Substance Abuse, Inc. 

340 East Second Street 

Suite 409 

Los Angeles, CA 9001 2 

213-625-5795 

www.napafasa.org 

National Black Alcoholism and Addictions Council 
1000 16th Street, NW., Suite 702 
Washington, DC 20036 
202-296-2696 

www.borg.com\~nbac/ 

National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse 

at Columbia University 

633 Third Avenue, 19th Floor 

New York, NY 1001 7-6706 

212-841-5200 

www.casacolumbia.org/ 

National Center on Women and Aging 

Heller Graduate School 

MS 035 

Brandeis University 

Waltham, MA 02454-91 1 

800-929-1995 

781-736-3866 

www.heller.brandeis.edu/national/cont.htm 

National Coalition Against Domestic Violence 

P.O. Box 18749 

Denver, CO 80218 

303-839-1852 

www.ncadv.org/ 

National Coalition Against Sexual Assault 

125 N. Enola Drive 

Enola, PA 1 7025 

717-728-9764 

www.ncasa.org/ 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



National Consortium on Violence Research (NCOVR) 

412-268-8311 

www.ncovr.heinz.cmu.edu 

National Council on Alcoholism and Drug 

Dependence, Inc. (NCADD) 

12 West 2 1st, 7th Floor 

New York, NY 1 001 7 

212-206-6770 

800-NCA-CALL 

www.ncadd.org 

National Council of Juvenile and Family Court 

Judges — Resource Center on Domestic Violence, 

Child Protection and Custody 

1041 N. Virginia Street 

P.O. Box 8970 

Reno, NV 89507 

775-784-6012 

www.ncjfcj.unr.edu/ 

National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC) 

1000 Connecticut Avenue, NW., 13th Floor 

Washington, DC 20036 

202-466-6272 

www.ncpc.org 

National Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Resources 
www.nemaine.com/carr/nationalresources.htm 

National Medical Association 
1012 10th Street, NW. 
Washington, DC 20001 
202-347-1895 
www.nmanet.org 

National Network for Family Resiliency 
www.nnfr.org/research/pv 

National Organization for Victim Assistance 

1757 Park Road, NW. 

Washington, DC 20010 

202-232-6682 

www.try-nova.org/ 



National Women's Resource Center 
E-mail: nwrc@erols.com 

The National Women's Study 
National Center for Victims of Crime 
2111 Wilson Blvd., Suite 300 
Arlington, VA 22201 
703-276-2880 
www.nvc.org 

On Line Resource Center (NCPC) 
www.ncpc.org/ncpc1 .htm 

Pacific Center for Violence Prevention 
www.pcvp.org 

Partnership for a Drug Free America 
405 Lexington Avenue, 16th Floor 
New York, NY 101 74 
212-922-1560 
www.drugfreeamerica.org 

Physicians for Social Responsibility 
Violence Prevention Program 
1 101 14th Street, NW., Suite 700 
Washington, DC 20005 
202-898-0150, x236 
www.psr.org 

PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National 
Institutes of Health) 
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi 

RAINN: Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network 

(800-656-HOPE) 

www.rainn.org 

The Renfrew Center (women's mental health center) 
(various locations) 
www. renfrew.org 

VAWA (information about the Violence Against 
Women Act of 1 999, the VAWA Reauthorization Bill, 
and national and local groups supporting the 
legislation) 

www.VawAct.com 






Substance Abuse Resource Guide 



Violence Policy Center 

1 140 19th Street, NW., Suite 600 

Washington, DC 20036 

www.vpc.org 



Web Resources for Asian -American Victims of 
Domestic Violence (a comprehensive list compiled by 
the Domestic Violence Project of Santa Clara 
County, CA) 
www.growing.com/nonviolent/22 



Prevention Materials for Violence Against Women 



47 



Other resource guides in this series include: 



Children Witnessing 
Violence and 
Substance Abuse 



SMA 00-3449 




Vinlence Against 
the Elderly 



SMA 00-3443 




Ynuth Firearm 
Vinlence 

SMA 00-3442 




Vinlence: An Overview 
nf Its Relatinnship tn 
Substance Abuse 



SMA 00-3326 



VIOLENCE 




Hate Crimes 

SMA 00-3445 




,.V 



Suicide 

SMA 00-3448 







Gangs 

SMA 00-3444 




;*>v» 







Vinlence in the 
Media 

SMA 00-3447 




Vinlence in 
Schools 

SMA 00-3446 




DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 00-3450 
Printed 2000 



CSAP 



Center for 
Substance Abuse 
Prevention 

Substance Abuse and Mental 
Health Services Administration 

www.samhsa.gov